China says it faces a serious threat from Islamist militants in its far western region of Xinjiang, where hundreds have died in violence in recent years.
However, exiles and rights groups say China has never presented convincing evidence of the existence of a cohesive militant group fighting the government, and that much of the unrest can be traced back to frustration at controls over the culture and religion of the Uighur people who live in Xinjiang.
Worries over human rights violations have also meant China has traditionally received little cooperation from Western countries in dealing with the issue.
The ministry said on its website China and the United States had reaffirmed their opposition to any form of militancy and agreed to improve bilateral and multilateral cooperation.
“Both sides will look to broadly increase anti-terrorism cooperation, including how to deal with cross-border foreign terrorists, cracking down on terror financing and increasing intelligence exchanges on terror threats,” it said.
It did not elaborate.
The government says Uighurs are also fighting with extremist groups in Syria and Iraq, having fled there via Southeast Asia and Turkey.
China has been worried that instability in Afghanistan, which shares a short border with Xinjiang, could provide succour for Uighur militants and has been deepening its diplomatic engagement there in an effort to bring peace.
The ministry said China and the United States would maintain communication and cooperation in Afghanistan and support efforts to bring peace and stability