The incident took place in the Syagard district of Parwan on Wednesday night.
A local security source on condition of anonymity told Ariana News that the insurgents stormed the outpost in Sarjoy Dokhtar village of the district.
According to the source, the Taliban captured the outpost and set ablaze it while five Afghan soldiers were inside.
The Taliban has shot dead two soldiers and detained two more, the source added.
The Taliban militant group yet to make a comment in this regard.