According to the Afghan National Army’s 205th Corps, the operation was a preemptive strike on militants who planned to carry out an attack on military posts in the Mizan district of the province.
Mullah Abrar, a Taliban commander, was among those killed in the airstrike, the 205th corps said.
The Taliban has yet to comment on the incident.
The Afghan National Army announced on Wednesday that six Taliban militants had been killed in Zabul province in another preemptive strike.
Clashes in Afghanistan continue despite the signing of a peace deal between the Taliban and the US on 29 February.
The agreement was set to pave the way for the beginning of intra-Afghan talks between the militant group and the government, following the mutual release of prisoners.