The incident happened at about 8am in PD4 near Nasrat High School.
Farid Khan, spokesman for Nangarhar police HQ confirmed the incident, and said gunmen opened fire on Dr Maihan Yousof when he was on his way to work.
Yousof and his two bodyguards died in the hail of bullets.
Photos taken at the scene after the attack show bullet holes on the back door of the Toyota Corolla Yousof had been traveling in.
Khan said the attackers immediately fled the area after the shooting. He added that police were investigating the incident.
So far no group has claimed responsibility for the attack.
This comes after the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan on Monday issued a new report on the sharp rise in targeted killings – especially among civil society activists and media workers.
UNAMA stated in the report that the trend of targeted killings, “combined with the absence of claims of responsibility, has generated a climate of fear among the population.”